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浅谈氮氧化物的来源及危害

日期:2020-11-03 09:39
浏览次数:160
摘要: 我国是以燃煤为主的发展中国家,其能源构成以煤炭为主,消耗量占一次能源消费量的76 %左右。随着经济的快速发展,煤耗的增加,燃煤造成的大气污染日趋严重,而氮氧化物(NOx) 是其中的主要污染物之一。近年来,由于机动车拥有量的迅速增长,尾气排放氮氧化物(NOX)也是一个不容忽视的问题。因此,国家“十二五”期间把氮氧化物(NOX)做为减排指标考核,控制氮氧化物(NOX)排放量已势在必行,。 大气中氮氧化物有N2O.NO.NO2.N2O3.N2O4和N2O5,总起来用NOx表示。其中污染大气的主要是NO和NO2。NO毒性不太大,但进入大气后可被...

我国是以燃煤为主的发展中国家,其能源构成以煤炭为主,消耗量占一次能源消费量的76 %左右。随着经济的快速发展,煤耗的增加,燃煤造成的大气污染日趋严重,而氮氧化物(NOx) 是其中的主要污染物之一。近年来,由于机动车拥有量的迅速增长,尾气排放氮氧化物(NOX)也是一个不容忽视的问题。因此,国家“十二五”期间把氮氧化物(NOX)做为减排指标考核,控制氮氧化物(NOX)排放量已势在必行,。


DAQIZHONGDANYANGHUAWUYOUN2O.NO.NO2.N2O3.N2O4HEN2O5,ZONGQILAIYONGNOxBIAOSHI。QIZHONGWURANDAQIDEZHUYAOSHINOHENO2。NODUXINGBUTAIDA,DANJINRUDAQIHOUKEBEIHUANMANDIYANGHUACHENGNO2,DANGDAQIZHONGYOUO3DENGQIANGYANGHUAJICUNZAISHI,HUOZAICUIHUAJIZUOYONGXIA,QIYANGHUASUDUHUIJIAKUAI。

DAQIZHONGDENOxLAIYUANZHUYAOYOULIANGFANGMIAN:YIFANGMIANSHIYOUZIRANJIEZHONGDEGUDANJUN.LEIDIANDENGZIRANGUOCHENGSUOCHANSHENG,MEINIANQUANQIUYUECHANSHENG5YIDUN,LINGYIFANGMIANSHIYOURENLEIHUODONGSUOCHANSHENG,MEINIANQUANQIUCHANSHENGLIANGCHAOGUO5000WANDUN。ZAIRENLEIHUODONGCHANSHENGDENOxZHONG,YOUGEZHONGLUYAO.JIDONGCHEHECHAIYOUJIDENGRANLIAOGAOWENRANSHAOCHANSHENGDEYUEZHAN90%YISHANG,QICISHIXIAOSUANSHENGCHAN.XIAOHUAGUOCHENG.zaoyaoSHENGCHANJIJINSHUBIAOMIANDEXIAOSUANCHULIDENGGUOCHENG。CONGRANSHAOXITONGZHONGPAICHUDENOx95%YISHANGSHINO,QIYUZHUYAOWEINO2。YOUYUZAIHUANJINGZHONGNOzuiZHONGJIANGZHUANHUAWEINO2,YINCI,GUSUANDENOxPAIFANGLIANGDOUANNO2JI。

NO2DEDUXINGYUEWEINODE5BEI。DANGNO2CANYUDAQIZHONGDEGUANGHUAXUEFANYING,XINGCHENGGUANGHUAXUEYANWUHOU,QIDUXINGGENGQIANG。DAQIZHONGDENOxDUIRENHEDONGZHIWUDOUYOUYIDINGDEWEIHAI。NOHAIHUIDAOZHI**SHENJINGSHOUSUN,YINQIJINGLUANHEMABI。GAONONGDUNOZHONGDUSHI,XUNSUDAOZHIFEIBUCHONGXUEHESHUIZHONG,SHENzuiZHIXISIWANG。

NOxYUTANQINGHUAHEWUHUNHESHI,ZAIYANGGUANGZHAOSHEXIAFASHENGGUANGHUAXUEFANYINGSHENGCHENGGUANGHUAXUEYANWU。GUANGHUAXUEYANWUDECHENGFENSHIGUANGHUAXUEYANGHUAJI,TAzuiMINGXIANDEWEIHAIZUOYONGSHICIJIRENDEYANJING,FASHENGHONGYANBING。CIWAI,DUIRENDEBI.YAN.HOU.QIGUANHEFEIBUDENGHUXIQIGUANYEYOUMINGXIANDECIJIZUOYONG,CONGERZENGDAHUXIZULI。GUANGHUAXUEYANWUDUIZHIWUDESUNHAISHIFENYANZHONG,YANZHONGSHISHIZUOWUJIANCHAN.SHUMUKUSI。

氮氧化物的控制技术

KONGZHIDANYANGHUAWUFEIQIPAIFANGDEJISHUCUOSHIZHUYAOFENLIANGDALEI:YILEISHIYUANTOUKONGZHI,DINOxRANSHAOJISHU,QITEZHENGSHITONGGUOGEZHONGJISHUSHOUDUAN,KONGZHIRANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGNOxDESHENGCHENGFANYING;LINGYILEISHIWEIBUKONGZHI,JIYANQITUOXIAO,QITEZHENGSHIBAYISHENGCHENGDENOxTONGGUOMOUZHONGSHOUDUANHAIYUANWEIN2,CONGERJIANGDIPAIFANGLIANG。

RENLEIHUODONGPAIRUDAQIZHONGDENOx,90%YISHANGLAIZIRANLIAORANSHAOGUOCHENG。RANSHAOGUOCHENGCHANSHENGDENOxZHUYAOSHINOHENO2,QIZHONGNOYUEZHAN90%,NO2YUEZHAN5~10%。RANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGNOxYOU3ZHONGBUTONGDESHENGCHENGTUJING,CHENGZUOBUTONGDENOx,JIRELIXINGNOx,RANSHAOXINGNOxHEKUAISUXINGNOx。

ZAINOXSHENGCHENGJILIZHONG,KUAISUXINGNOXBUDAO5%,DANGRANSHAOQUWENDUDIYU1350℃SHIJIHUMEIYOURELIXINGNOX,ZHIYOUDANGRANSHAOWENDUCHAOGUO1600℃SHI,RELIXINGNOXCAIKENENGZHANDAO25~30%。DUIYUCHANGGUIRANSHAOSHEBEI,NOXDERANSHAOKONGZHIZHUYAOSHITONGGUOJIANGDIRANLIAOXINGNOXERSHIXIANDE。

JIDONGCHEPAIFANGDENOXYESHIBUKEHUSHIDEPAIFANGYUAN,JIDONGCHEPAIFANGDENOXZHUYAOSHIRELIXINGNOXHERANLIAOXINGNOX。

1.低NOx燃烧技术

FANTONGGUOGAIBIANRANSHAOTIAOJIANLAIYIZHINOxSHENGCHENGHUOPOHUAIYISHENGCHENGDENOxDADAOJIANSHAONOxPAIFANGDEJISHUCHENGWEIDINOXRANSHAOJISHU。TABAOKUODIGUOLIANGKONGQIRANSHAO.ERDUANRANSHAOHEYANQIZAIXUNHUAN。ZAIGEZHONGNOxWURANKONGZHIJISHUZHONG,DINOXRANSHAOJISHUSHIYINGYONGzuiGUANG.XIANGDUIJIANDAN.JINGJIYOUXIAODEFANGFA。

(1)低过量空气系数运行技术

NOxPAIFANGLIANGSUIZHELUNEIKONGQILIANGDEZENGJIAERZENGJIA,GUOLUCAIYONGDIKONGQIGUOLIANGXISHUYUNXING,BUJINKEYIJIANGDINOxPAIFANG,ERQIENENGGOUJIANSHAOGUOLURESUNSHI,TIGAOGUOLUREXIAOLV。DANYOUKENENGDAOZHICO.TANQINGHUAHEWUHETANHEIDENGWURANWUYIJIFEIHUIZHONGKERANWUZHILIANGDEZENGJIA,CONGERSHIRANSHAOXIAOLVXIAJIANG。YINCI,ZAIQUEDINGKONGQIGUOSHENGXISHUSHIBIXUTONGSHIMANZUGUOLUREXIAOLV.RANSHAOXIAOLVJIJIANGDINOXDENGYAOQIU。

(2)二段燃烧技术

ERDUANRANSHAOJISHUSHIZAILIANGDUANRANSHAOZHUANGZHIZHONG,RANLIAOZAIJIEJINLILUNKONGQILIANGXIARANSHAO。RANSHAOSUOYONGDEKONGQIFENLIANGCITONGRU,YIJIRANSHAOFENLIANGDUANJINXING。DIyiDUANTONGRUDEKONGQIYUEZHANZONGKONGQILIANGDE80%~95%,RANSHAOZAIFURANSHAOPINYANGTIAOJIANXIAJINXING,XINGCHENGDIYANGRANSHAOQU,HUOYANWENDUDI,YINERYIZHILENOxDESHENGCHENG。DIerDUANJIANGQIYUDEKONGQICONGWENDUJIAODIDEQUYUSONGRU,SHIDIyiDUANSHENGYUDEBUWANQUANRANSHAOCHANWUCO.TANQINGHUAHEWUDEDAOWANQUANRANSHAO。ZAIERCIKONGQIGONGRUHOU,SUIRANYANGGUOSHENG,DANYOUYUYANQIWENDUJIAODIERXIANZHILENOxDESHENGCHENGLIANG。CAIYONGLIANGDUANRANSHAO,BIMIANLEZAIGAOWEN.GAOYANGTIAOJIANXIADERANSHAOZHUANGKUANG,YINERNOxDESHENGCHENGLIANGKEDAJIANGDI。

(3)烟气再循环技术

DUIYANQIJINXINGZAIXUNHUANSHIJIANSHAONOxXINGCHENGDEHENYOUXIAODEFANGFA。QIYUANLIWEI:BUFENLENGQUELEDEYANQIZAIXUNHUANBEISONGHUIDAORANSHAOQU,QIDAOJIANGDIYANGNONGDUHERANSHAOQUWENDUDEZUOYONG,DADAOJIANSHAONOSHENGCHENGDEMUDE。YANQIDEXUNHUANLVZAI25%~40%DEFANWEINEIzuiWEISHIYI,NOxDEYIZHIXIAOGUOzuiJIA。

2.烟气脱硝技术

(1)非选择性催化还原法(NSCR)

HANNOxDEQITIZAIYIDINGWENDUHECUIHUAJIDEZUOYONGXIAHEHAIYUANJIFASHENGFANYING,JIANGQIZHONGDENO2HECODENGHAIYUANWEIN2,TONGSHIHAIYUANJIYUQITIZHONGDEO2FANYINGSHENGCHENGSHUIHECO2。ZUOWEIHAIYUANJIDEQITI,KEYONGH2.CH4.COHEDITANQINGHUAHEWU。TONGCHANGDEHAIYUANJIWEIHANYISHANGZUFENDEHUNHEQITI,RUHECHENGANSHIFANGQI.JIAOLUQI.TIANRANQI.LIANYOUCHANGWEIQIHEQIHUASHINAOYOUDENG。CUIHUAJIWEIBOHEBA,FANYINGWENDUKONGZHIZAI550~800℃,JINGHUAXIAOGUOzuiHAO。WENDUDISHINOxDEZHUANHUALVDI,WENDUCHAOGUO815℃HUISHAOHUAICUIHUAJIZAITI,SHICUIHUAJIHUOXINGJIANGDI,CONGERJIANGDIJINGHUAXIAOLV。

(2)选择性催化还原法(SCR)

YONGNH3ZUOHAIYUANJIDUIHANNOxDEQITIJINXINGCUIHUAHAIYUANCHULI,SHINH3NENGYOUXUANZEDIHEQITIZHONGDENOJINXINGFANYING,ERBUHEYANGFASHENGFANYING。CUIHUAJIKEYIYONGBO.BADEGUIJINSHUCUIHUAJI,YEKEYIYONGHANTONG.TIE.FAN.MENGDENGFEIJINSHUCUIHUAJI。FANYINGWENDUKONGZHIZAI400℃YIXIA,KESHIYIXIAFANYINGZHANJUEduiYOUSHI。

(3)液体吸收法

SHUIXISHOUFA:YONGSHUIXISHOUNOxSHI,SHUIHENO2FANYINGSHENGCHENGXIAOSUANHEYAXIAOSUAN,YAXIAOSUANBUWENDING,HENKUAIFASHENGFENJIESHENGCHENGXIAOSUAN.NOHESHUI。NOBUYUSHUIFASHENGFANYING,ZAISHUIZHONGDERONGJIEDUHENXIAO,BINGQIEZAISHUIXISHOUNO2SHI,HAIFANGCHUBUFENNO,YINERSHUIXISHOUFADEJINGHUAXIAOLVBUGAO,BUNENGYONGYUZHUYAOHANNODERANSHAOFEIQIDEJINGHUA。DANYOUYUSHUIJIAGEDI.FANGBIAN,KEYONGYUJINGHUAXIAOQILIANGDEYIHANNO2WEIZHUDENOxFEIQI。

酸吸收法:用浓硫酸吸收法的原理是浓硫酸和NOx可生成亚硝基硫酸。亚硝基硫酸可以用于硫酸生产和浓缩硝酸。在同时生产硫酸和浓硝酸的企业中,可以用该法净化含NOx废气。稀硝酸吸收法的原理是利用NOx在稀硝酸中的溶解度比在水中的溶解度高得多这一性质,对NO行物理吸收。该法可用于硝酸尾气的处理。

JIANYEXISHOUFA:JIANXINGRONGYEHENO2FANYINGSHENGCHENGXIAOSUANYANHEYAXIAOSUANYAN。JIANYEXISHOUFAYEBUSHIHEYUZHUYAOHANNODERANSHAOFEIQIJINGHUA,ERBIJIAOSHIHEYUYANGHUADUJIAODADEHANNOxFEIQIJINGHUA(YANGHUADUSHINO2ZAINOxZHONGSUOZHANDEBAIFENBI)。GAIXISHOUFAZHONGCAIYONGJIAODUODEXISHOUJIWEINaOHHENa2CO3RONGYE,XISHOUXIAOLVBUGAO,DUINO2/NOYEYOUYIDINGXIANZHI。

XISHOUHAIYUANFA:YONGYALIUSUANYAN.YAXIAOSUANYAN.LIUHUAWUHUONIAOSUDESHUIRONGYEZUOXISHOUJI,JIANGNOxXISHOUBINGJIANGQIZAIYEXIANGZHONGHAIYUANWEIN2DEFANGFA,ZHEIZHONGFANGFAKEYIDADAOHENGAODEJINGHUAXIAOLV。

YANGHUAXISHOUFA:XIANJIANGNOxZHONGDENOBUFENDIYANGHUAWEINO2YITIGAONOxDEYANGHUADU,ZAIYONGJIANXINGRONGYEJINXINGXISHOU。GUONEIXIAOSUANYANGHUA-JIANYEXISHOULIUCHENGYIYONGYUGONGYESHENGCHAN。

(4)吸附法

XIFUFASHILIYONGXIFUJIDUINOxDEXIFULIANGSUIWENDUHUOYALIBIANHUAERBIANHUA,TONGGUOZHOUQIXINGDIGAIBIANCAOZUOWENDUHUOYALIKONGZHINOxDEXIFUHEJIEXI,SHINOxCONGQIYUANZHONGFENLICHULAI。CHANGYONGDEXIFUJIWEIFENZISHAI.GUIJIAO.HUOXINGTAN.HANANNIMEIDENG。GAIFADEYOUDIAN:NENGBIJIAOCHEDIDIXIAOCHUNOxDEWURAN,YOUNENGJIANGNOxHUISHOULIYONG,SHEBEIJIANDANQIECAOZUOFANGBIAN。QUEDIANSHI:YOUYUXIFUJIDEXIFURONGLIANGXIAO,XUYAODEXIFUJILIANGDA,SHEBEIPANGDA,XUYAOZAISHENGCHULI,ERQIEGUOCHENGWEIJIANXIECAOZUO。YINCIJINYONGYUJINGHUACHULIDINONGDUDENOxFEIQI。

3.机动车尾气氮氧化物控制技术

JINJINIAN,WOGUOSUIZHEJIDONGCHEYONGYOULIANGDEXUNMENGZENGZHANG,YOUCIYINFADENOxWURANRIQUYANZHONG,KONGZHIJIDONGCHEWEIQIPAIFANGYIPOZAIMEIJIE,JUTIKONGZHICUOSHISHI:DALITUIGUANGXIAOPAILIANGQICHE,GUOJIABINGJIYUYIDINGDEZHENGCEZHICHI;DUIYUYANZHONGCHAOBIAODEQICHEBIXUANZHUANGCUIHUAQI;GULISHIYONGWUQIANQIYOU;JIJIFAZHANLVSEHUANBAOXINGQICHE(RULVYOUQUYONGDEDIANPINGCHE)DENG;YANGEKONGZHIYONGCHEZHILIANG,DUIYUBUFUHEPAIFANGBIAOZHUNDEJIDONGCHE,YINGJINZHISHANGLU,DUIYICHAOGUOSHIYONGSHOUMINGDE,YINGJIASUTAOTAI。


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